Sport fitness training or workout is designed to prepare sports persons basically to prepare them for the physical demands of competition. Physical fitness differs from one sport to another.
What exactly does it mean when coaches and sports scientists talk about training programs that match “demand of sports”? They mean that training activities must closely simulate the specific nature of each athletic contest. For example, training for basketball is very different from marathon or say for that of a sprinter; as intermittent bursts of speed for a basketball player and a sprinter versus the long term sustained running tap different energy sources.
The benefit of workout and physical training for athletes include:
*less fatigue and quicker recovery.
*reduce muscle soars.
*ability to practice long.
*fewer injuries and faster recovery from them.
To best match these demands, programs can be built to target fitness components such as muscular strength, power, speed, agility, flexibility, muscular endurance and energy fitness. A well devised sport specific workout program also integrates motor(movement) efficiency to develop coordination. Strength targeted workout improves joint stability, increases muscle size and contributes to power development.
Cardio based workout develop: a) more efficient use of oxygen b) improved use of fat for energy c) increased muscle size to exert greater force d) improved blood flow e) greater lung capacity f) increased size of heart to pump more blood in one stroke g) better coordination and h) stronger bone, ligament and tendons to reduce injuries. Ideally there is enough time to develop a periodized programs with several phases and cycles that allow more time to athletes success, individual differences require appropriate adjustments as the coach identifies the athlete’s strengths as of improvement.
The primary focus of any fitness or workout training program is to generate sport specific changes within the muscles support system of athletes, workout activities should also improve the psychological preparation, sport skill development and other activities that will transfer to sport performances.
For increasing agility of a sportsperson explosiveness is required which is done through ladder/tyre drills, an optimal combination of squats, speed squats, power cleans and light weightlifting. For decreasing reaction time mental processing can be accelerated in practice through such techniques as narrowing choices, learning to anticipate, identifying clues and visualizing appropriate responses.
Some physical training like reaction drills, line drills, pylometrics, hurdle drills and other activities force quick foot movement reactions especially required for athletes, soccer players and boxers. Building agility teach athletes to lower the centre of gravity and shift weight in the direction of anticipation particularly in boxing and this combines the mental and physical training of an athlete.
Strength and explosive workouts do well in strengthening and stabilizing joints, but additional attention may be required. Athletic trainers can perform tests to determine weakness or threats to joint integrity. It may be advisable to incorporate additional single joint workouts like hamstring curls, various leg exercises for quadriceps and strengthening activities.
Increasing trunk strength is required for shifting weight, reaching and bending particularly during rapidly changing of directions is required as in all athletics and sport like basketball, volleyball, tennis etc. Here a variety of core strengthening workouts like trunk rotations, roman chair, crunches should be combined with back hyper extensions, variety of medicine ball exercises that emphasise trunk strengthening, stability and flexibility to move through long ranges of motion with ease.
Muscle injuries can be minimised through a combination of strengthening and stretching workouts. A full body stretching regimen is an essential for any sports workout program with special attention to be given to trunk, hip and knee flexibility. Lastly aerobic workouts are also recommended for sports which requires continuous and sustained activity, intensity, duration and recovery time needed within bouts of activities like in distance running, soccer etc.